Использование JSON-RPC в Python для Monero

Monero — это безопасная, приватная, неотслеживаемая криптовалюта. Для более подробной информации можете посетить getmonero.org и r/Monero.

Основными компонентами Monero являются simplewallet и bitmonerod. Первый — это кошелёк, что понятно из названия. Второй — демон, отвечающий за взаимодействие с блокчейном Monero.



Важнейшие функции simplewallet и bitmonerod могут выполняться посредством протокола JSON-RPC (JavaScript Object Notation Remote Procedure Calls – JSON-вызов удалённых процедур).

Используя эти процедуры, можно разрабатывать приложения на базе bitmonerod и simplewallet, например, GUI-кошельки, веб-приложения, позволяющие просматривать баланс, обозреватели блокчейна.

Ввиду того, что в сети практически нет инструкций и примеров использования JSON-RPC для взаимодействия с bitmonerod и simplewallet, предлагаю вам ознакомиться с примерами на языке Python. Надюсь, они помогут вам начать создавать приложения на базе Monero.

simplewallet

Примеры демонстрируют вызов наиболее востребованных процедур, предоставляемых simplewallet, это:

  • getbalance
  • query_key
  • get_payments
  • getaddress
  • incoming_transfers
  • transfer

С базовой документацией по этим процедурам можно ознакомиться здесь.

Необходимые условия

Перед запуском кода примеров убедитесь в том, что simplewallet запущен и настроен на приём входящих RPC-запросов. Для этого вы можете запустить simplewallet со следующимим параметрами:

/opt/bitmonero/simplewallet --wallet-file ~/wallet.bin --password  --rpc-bind-port 18082

Код был написан и протестирован на Ubuntu 15.10 и Python 3.4.3 с установленным пакетом Requests.

Пример 1: получение баланса кошелька

import requests
import json

def main():

    # simple wallet is running on the localhost and port of 18082
    url = "http://localhost:18082/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # simplewallet' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
           "method": "getbalance"
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
        url,
        data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
        headers=headers)

    # amounts in cryptonote are encoded in a way which is convenient
    # for a computer, not a user. Thus, its better need to recode them
    # to something user friendly, before displaying them.
    #
    # For examples:
    # 4760000000000 is 4.76
    # 80000000000   is 0.08
    #
    # In example 3 "Basic example 3: get incoming transfers" it is
    # shown how to convert cryptonote values to user friendly format.

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response.json(), indent=4))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "id": "0",
    "result": {
        "unlocked_balance": 4760000000000,
        "balance": 4760000000000
    }
}

Пример 2: получение информации о платеже по его идентификатору

import requests
import json

def main():

    # simple wallet is running on the localhost and port of 18082
    url = "http://localhost:18082/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # an example of a payment id
    payment_id = "426870cb29c598e191184fa87003ca562d9e25f761ee9e520a888aec95195912"

    # simplewallet' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
        "method": "get_payments",
        "params": {"payment_id": payment_id}
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
        url,
        data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
        headers=headers)

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response.json(), indent=4))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "result": {
        "payments": [
            {
                "tx_hash": "66040ad29f0d780b4d47641a67f410c28cce575b5324c43b784bb376f4e30577",
                "amount": 4800000000000,
                "block_height": 795523,
                "payment_id": "426870cb29c598e191184fa87003ca562d9e25f761ee9e520a888aec95195912",
                "unlock_time": 0
            }
        ]
    },
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "id": "0"
}

Пример 3: получение списка входящих переводов

import requests
import json

def main():

    # simple wallet is running on the localhost and port of 18082
    url = "http://localhost:18082/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # simplewallet' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
            "method": "incoming_transfers",
            "params": {"transfer_type": "all"}
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
         url,
         data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
         headers=headers)

    # make json dict with response
    response_json = response.json()

    # amounts in cryptonote are encoded in a way which is convenient
    # for a computer, not a user. Thus, its better need to recode them
    # to something user friendly, before displaying them.
    #
    # For examples:
    # 4760000000000 is 4.76
    # 80000000000   is 0.08
    #
    if "result" in response_json:
        if "transfers" in response_json["result"]:
            for transfer in response_json["result"]["transfers"]:
                transfer["amount"] = float(get_money(str(transfer["amount"])))


    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response_json, indent=4))

def get_money(amount):
    """decode cryptonote amount format to user friendly format. Hope its correct.

    Based on C++ code:
    https://github.com/monero-project/bitmonero/blob/master/src/cryptonote_core/cryptonote_format_utils.cpp#L751
    """

    CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT = 12

    s = amount

    if len(s) < CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT + 1:
        # add some trailing zeros, if needed, to have constant width
        s = '0' * (CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT + 1 - len(s)) + s

    idx = len(s) - CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT

    s = s[0:idx] + "." + s[idx:]

    return s

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
        "transfers": [
            {
                "tx_hash": "<66040ad29f0d780b4d47641a67f410c28cce575b5324c43b784bb376f4e30577>",
                "tx_size": 521,
                "spent": true,
                "global_index": 346865,
                "amount": 0.8
            },
            {
                "tx_hash": "<66040ad29f0d780b4d47641a67f410c28cce575b5324c43b784bb376f4e30577>",
                "tx_size": 521,
                "spent": true,
                "global_index": 177947,
                "amount": 4.0
            },
            {
                "tx_hash": "<79e7eb67b7022a21505fa034388b5e3b29e1ce639d6dec37347fefa612117ce9>",
                "tx_size": 562,
                "spent": false,
                "global_index": 165782,
                "amount": 0.08
            },
            {
                "tx_hash": "<79e7eb67b7022a21505fa034388b5e3b29e1ce639d6dec37347fefa612117ce9>",
                "tx_size": 562,
                "spent": false,
                "global_index": 300597,
                "amount": 0.9
            },
            {
                "tx_hash": "<79e7eb67b7022a21505fa034388b5e3b29e1ce639d6dec37347fefa612117ce9>",
                "tx_size": 562,
                "spent": false,
                "global_index": 214803,
                "amount": 3.0
            },
            {
                "tx_hash": "<e8409a93edeed9f6c67e6716bb180d9593e8beafa63d51facf68bee233bf694d>",
                "tx_size": 525,
                "spent": false,
                "global_index": 165783,
                "amount": 0.08
            },
            {
                "tx_hash": "<e8409a93edeed9f6c67e6716bb180d9593e8beafa63d51facf68bee233bf694d>",
                "tx_size": 525,
                "spent": false,
                "global_index": 375952,
                "amount": 0.7
            }
        ]
    },
    "id": "0"
}

Пример 4: создание транзакции

import requests
import json
import os
import binascii


def main():
    """DONT RUN IT without changing the destination address!!!"""

    # simple wallet is running on the localhost and port of 18082
    url = "http://localhost:18082/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    destination_address = "489MAxaT7xXP3Etjk2suJT1uDYZU6cqFycsau2ynCTBacncWVEwe9eYFrAD6BqTn4Y2KMs7maX75iX1UFwnJNG5G88wxKoj"


    # amount of xmr to send
    amount = 0.54321

    # cryptonote amount format is different then
    # that normally used by people.
    # thus the float amount must be changed to
    # something that cryptonote understands
    int_amount = int(get_amount(amount))

    # just to make sure that amount->coversion->back
    # gives the same amount as in the initial number
    assert amount == float(get_money(str(int_amount))), "Amount conversion failed"

    # send specified xmr amount to the given destination_address
    recipents = [{"address": destination_address,
                  "amount": int_amount}]

    # using given mixin
    mixin = 4

    # get some random payment_id
    payment_id = get_payment_id()

    # simplewallet' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
        "method": "transfer",
        "params": {"destinations": recipents,
                   "mixin": mixin,
                   "payment_id" : payment_id}
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
         url,
         data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
         headers=headers)

    # print the payment_id
    print("#payment_id: ", payment_id)

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response.json(), indent=4))


def get_amount(amount):
    """encode amount (float number) to the cryptonote format. Hope its correct.

    Based on C++ code:
    https://github.com/monero-project/bitmonero/blob/master/src/cryptonote_core/cryptonote_format_utils.cpp#L211
    """

    CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT = 12

    str_amount = str(amount)

    fraction_size = 0

    if '.' in str_amount:

        point_index = str_amount.index('.')

        fraction_size = len(str_amount) - point_index - 1

        while fraction_size < CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT and '0' == str_amount[-1]:
            print(44)
            str_amount = str_amount[:-1]
            fraction_size = fraction_size - 1

        if CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT < fraction_size:
            return False

        str_amount = str_amount[:point_index] + str_amount[point_index+1:]

    if not str_amount:
        return False

    if fraction_size < CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT:
        str_amount = str_amount + '0'*(CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT - fraction_size)

    return str_amount


def get_money(amount):
    """decode cryptonote amount format to user friendly format. Hope its correct.

    Based on C++ code:
    https://github.com/monero-project/bitmonero/blob/master/src/cryptonote_core/cryptonote_format_utils.cpp#L751
    """

    CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT = 12

    s = amount

    if len(s) < CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT + 1:
        # add some trailing zeros, if needed, to have constant width
        s = '0' * (CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT + 1 - len(s)) + s

    idx = len(s) - CRYPTONOTE_DISPLAY_DECIMAL_POINT

    s = s[0:idx] + "." + s[idx:]

    return s

def get_payment_id():
    """generate random payment_id

    generate some random payment_id for the
    transactions

    payment_id is 32 bytes (64 hexadecimal characters)
    thus we first generate 32 random byte array
    which is then change to string representation, since
    json will not not what to do with the byte array.
    """

    random_32_bytes = os.urandom(32)
    payment_id = "".join(map(chr, binascii.hexlify(random_32_bytes)))

    return payment_id


if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

#payment_id:  4926869b6b5d50b24cb59f08fd76826cacdf76201b2d4648578fe610af7f786e
{
    "id": "0",
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
        "tx_key": "",
        "tx_hash": "<04764ab4855b8a9f9c42d99e19e1c40956a502260123521ca3f6488dd809797a>"
    }
}

Другие примеры вы можете посмотреть здесь.

bitmonerod

bitmonerod принимает следующие базовые RPC-запросы:

  • getheight
  • query_key
  • mining_status
  • getlastblockheader
  • getblockheaderbyhash
  • getblockheaderbyheight
  • getblock
  • get_info
  • get_connections

Необходимые условия

Перед запуском кода примеров убедитесь в том, что bitmonerod запущен. Требования к среде остаются прежними (Ubuntu 15.10 и Python 3.4.3 с установленным пакетом Requests).

Пример 1: статус майнинга

import requests
import json

def main():

    # bitmonerod' is running on the localhost and port of 18081
    url = "http://localhost:18081/mining_status"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
        url,
        headers=headers)

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response.json(), indent=4))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "status": "OK",
    "threads_count": 2,
    "speed": 117,
    "active": true,
    "address": "48daf1rG3hE1Txapcsxh6WXNe9MLNKtu7W7tKTivtSoVLHErYzvdcpea2nSTgGkz66RFP4GKVAsTV14v6G3oddBTHfxP6tU"
}

Пример 2: получить заголовок блока зная его хеш

import requests
import json

def main():

    # bitmonerod is running on the localhost and port of 18081
    url = "http://localhost:18081/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # the block to get
    block_hash = 'd78e2d024532d8d8f9c777e2572623fd0f229d72d9c9c9da3e7cb841a3cb73c6'

    # bitmonerod' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
           "method": "getblockheaderbyhash",
           "params": {"hash": block_hash}
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
        url,
        data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
        headers=headers)

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response.json(), indent=4))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "result": {
        "status": "OK",
        "block_header": {
            "difficulty": 756932534,
            "height": 796743,
            "nonce": 8389,
            "depth": 46,
            "orphan_status": false,
            "hash": "d78e2d024532d8d8f9c777e2572623fd0f229d72d9c9c9da3e7cb841a3cb73c6",
            "timestamp": 1445741816,
            "major_version": 1,
            "minor_version": 0,
            "prev_hash": "dff9c6299c84f945fabde9e96afa5d44f3c8fa88835fb87a965259c46694a2cd",
            "reward": 8349972377827
        }
    },
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "id": "0"
}

Пример 3: получить полную информацию о блоке

import requests
import json

def main():

    # bitmonerod is running on the localhost and port of 18082
    url = "http://localhost:18081/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # the block to get
    block_hash = 'd78e2d024532d8d8f9c777e2572623fd0f229d72d9c9c9da3e7cb841a3cb73c6'

    # bitmonerod' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
           "method": "getblock",
           "params": {"hash": block_hash}
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
        url,
        data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
        headers=headers)

    # the response will contain binary blob. For some reason
    # python's json encoder will crash trying to parse such
    # response. Thus, its better to remove it from the response.
    response_json_clean = json.loads(
                            "\n".join(filter(
                                lambda l: "blob" not in l, response.text.split("\n")
                            )))

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response_json_clean, indent=4))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
        "block_header": {
            "difficulty": 756932534,
            "major_version": 1,
            "height": 796743,
            "prev_hash": "dff9c6299c84f945fabde9e96afa5d44f3c8fa88835fb87a965259c46694a2cd",
            "depth": 166,
            "reward": 8349972377827,
            "minor_version": 0,
            "timestamp": 1445741816,
            "nonce": 8389,
            "orphan_status": false,
            "hash": "d78e2d024532d8d8f9c777e2572623fd0f229d72d9c9c9da3e7cb841a3cb73c6"
        },
        "json": "{\n  \"major_version\": 1, \n  \"minor_version\": 0, \n  \"timestamp\": 1445741816, \n  \"prev_id\": \"dff9c6299c84f945fabde9e96afa5d44f3c8fa88835fb87a965259c46694a2cd\", \n  \"nonce\": 8389, \n  \"miner_tx\": {\n    \"version\": 1, \n    \"unlock_time\": 796803, \n    \"vin\": [ {\n        \"gen\": {\n          \"height\": 796743\n        }\n      }\n    ], \n    \"vout\": [ {\n        \"amount\": 9972377827, \n        \"target\": {\n          \"key\": \"aecebf2757be84a2d986052607ec3114969f7c9e128a051f5e13f2304287733d\"\n        }\n      }, {\n        \"amount\": 40000000000, \n        \"target\": {\n          \"key\": \"c3a6d449f3fa837edbbc6beac8bc0405c6340c4e39418164b4aa1fa2202573f2\"\n        }\n      }, {\n        \"amount\": 300000000000, \n        \"target\": {\n          \"key\": \"cfce614b779ab2705fc5f94a022eb983a2960ba9da02d61f430e988128236b0a\"\n        }\n      }, {\n        \"amount\": 8000000000000, \n        \"target\": {\n          \"key\": \"b445b474d19ae555e048762e12ac8c406a4a6d7b0f37993dc8dabe7a31ef65b8\"\n        }\n      }\n    ], \n    \"extra\": [ 1, 243, 56, 214, 120, 176, 255, 133, 1, 251, 134, 27, 135, 49, 198, 55, 249, 146, 222, 116, 48, 103, 249, 229, 195, 120, 162, 127, 62, 35, 57, 231, 51, 2, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 25, 79, 41, 47\n    ], \n    \"signatures\": [ ]\n  }, \n  \"tx_hashes\": [ \"cc283dcae267c622d685b3e5f8e72aaba807dad0bb2d4170521af57c50be8165\", \"d2873b1c1800ce04434c663893a16417e8717015e9686914166f7957c5eabd68\"\n  ]\n}",
        "tx_hashes": [
            "cc283dcae267c622d685b3e5f8e72aaba807dad0bb2d4170521af57c50be8165",
            "d2873b1c1800ce04434c663893a16417e8717015e9686914166f7957c5eabd68"
        ],
        "status": "OK"
    },
    "id": "0"
}

Прмер 4: получить информацию о блокчейне

import requests
import json

def main():

    # bitmonerod is running on the localhost and port of 18082
    url = "http://localhost:18081/json_rpc"

    # standard json header
    headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}

    # bitmonerod' procedure/method to call
    rpc_input = {
           "method": "get_info"
    }

    # add standard rpc values
    rpc_input.update({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "0"})

    # execute the rpc request
    response = requests.post(
        url,
        data=json.dumps(rpc_input),
        headers=headers)

    # pretty print json output
    print(json.dumps(response.json(), indent=4))

if __name__ == "__main__":
    main()

Результат выполнения:

{
    "jsonrpc": "2.0",
    "result": {
        "status": "OK",
        "alt_blocks_count": 0,
        "difficulty": 692400878,
        "height": 797031,
        "tx_pool_size": 1,
        "grey_peerlist_size": 3447,
        "outgoing_connections_count": 12,
        "tx_count": 492488,
        "white_peerlist_size": 253,
        "target_height": 796995,
        "incoming_connections_count": 0
    },
    "id": "0"
}

 

Источник: http://moneroexamples.github.io/python-json-rpc/